Medieval Music for One Hand: The Tabor Pipe

The English Tabor Pipe has only three holes.  One is on the back for the thumb and two are on the front of the instrument.  These pipes were designed to be played with one hand.  Typically, the performer plays a tabor drum with the other hand.  

The pipe has a range of over an octave of a fifth.  Blowing harder allows the player to reach different overtones, and therefore many notes can be played with one fingering.  See the following fingering system 

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Despite their size, tabor pipes are loud!  They are designed to be played outdoors.  

Check out this recording of La Volta, a 16th century dance:


There are many varieties of pipes in many cultures.  For musicians who can only use one hand, these pipes need no adaptations.

Guest Post: David Nabb

Nabb photo 3 (1).jpgI am excited to introduce my first guest writer, David Nabb.  He is a Professor of Music at the University of Nebraska at Kearney. Born and raised in Iowa, he holds both B.M. and M.M. degrees in Multiple Woodwind Performance from Indiana University, and Ph.D. in Music Education from the University of North Texas.

Since surviving a catastrophic stroke 2000, David has worked with Jeff Stelling to develop a saxophone that can be played with the right hand only. Nabb has demonstrated his toggle-key saxophone throughout the world, and is often asked to speak and write about music for persons with disabilities. The following post highlights several musicians with disabilities whose deep passion for music helped them find a way to perform.

Lessons from Musicians with Disabilities


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Each time I read the lines above, I am reminded not of the blood lust to which Virgil intended, but of the mysterious passion for music making that so many humans experience. My mind is led in this direction because of the irrational, mysterious, and ubiquitous nature of musical desire.  As a musician, for me it is natural to associate Virgil’s “fire in men’s hearts” with the desire to make music. Take a journey down the rabbit hole of musical desire through some mystifying examples of irrational musical passion that both inspire and confound.

Begin with Ludwig van Beethoven, born in 1770. Today Beethoven’s music retains the power to move millions of souls to rapture, hopelessness, laughter or tears, and this is more than 200 years after the music was created. Countless of our greatest musical minds have held Beethoven’s music with deep fascination, including Franz Schubert, Leonard Bernstein, Wynton Marsalis, and Herbert von Karajan. Beethoven has the rare distinction of having earned a place in American popular culture, quite uncommon for a Classical music composer.  Even today, everyone recognizes his name. Schroeder, the piano player in the Peanuts gang, may have played a role in this. My own fascination with Ludwig van Beethoven began when I first studied Beethoven’s music, and for about 15 years I had a five-foot-tall poster of Beethoven’s likeness in my bedroom. My poster gradually became scratched, worn, and faded over the years, but my admiration for the music has never faded. It has grown over time.

Consider the fact that Beethoven wrote most of his greatest works when he was deaf. As a young adult, Beethoven was the victim of a mysterious malady that took his hearing when he was about 30 years old. The great majority of his most important works were written after the onset of his deafness. In fact, Beethoven never actually heard many his own musical works that still speak so many of us.  

When trying to understand Beethoven’s example, the best we can do is to use the available information of how people, particularly people with disabilities, interact with music. A look at some contemporary musicians with disabilities will illustrate my ultimate argument best. Take a moment to read through the following factual accounts.

A compelling scene from 2016 remains vivid in my own memory. A small recital hall at Cincinnati’s Xavier University contained about 50 seats, the air stirred with excited voices.  On a small stage at the front of the stage a cello rested horizontally in a specialized cello stand. Few cellists or experienced music aficionados would recognize the stand supporting the cello in a way that allows access to the strings and the fingerboard without distorting its tone or resonance.

A young woman enters a stage. She places herself on a tall stool facing the cello and speaks to the audience, “Hi, my name is Inga, and I’m going to play ‘The Swan’ by Saint-Saens” (Nabb, 2017).

To continue reading, click the following pdf:


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One-Handed Ocarina

The ocarina is an instrument with many variations.  Some have four holes, some have six, some have twelve.  Some are made of wood, some are made of metal, some are made of plastic.  Thanks to the Ocarina Workshop, some can be played with one hand.

Christa Liggins at the Ocarina Workshop says that their motto is “Music for Every Child and Every Teacher.”  She noted that “adapting their ocarina-making tool to produce one-handed ocarinas was costly, but they have done this to enable children with the use of only one hand to integrate fully into Ocarina lessons.”  Thank you, Christa and friends at the Ocarina Workshop, for being champions of accessibility!

The one-handed Ocarina costs £ 20.00.  This is roughly twice the cost of their standard plastic Ocarina.  (In comparison, the Aulos Recorder for Players with Disabilities costs four times the cost of their standard model.)  For a commercially produced adapted instrument, the One-Handed Ocarina is certainly on the more affordable side.

I was curious about this instrument, so I ordered one.  Here is a sample!

The Case for Adapted Musical Instruments

David Nabb is a Professor of Music at the University of Nebraska at Keaney.  He suffered a stroke in 2000 which paralyzed the left side of his body.  Over the course of several years, he worked with Jeff Stelling to design a saxophone that can be played with the right hand alone.  David recently gave a TedX talk in Lincoln, Nebraska about rediscovering his musical identity through his adapted instrument.  Thank you, David, for sharing your story and your musicianship!

I invented something! And you can, too!

About 6 years ago, I created a soprano recorder brace out of a plastic thumb rest, a wooden dowel, a screw, some glue, and some foam.  I use this brace today and I made one for my alto recorder, as well.  They are not fancy, but they work.

After dreaming about doing this for ages, I finally designed a brace that can be 3D printed!  

I used Tinkercad, a free, online platform for 3D design.  The program is easy to use; even without a background in engineering, I quickly learned how to create, resize, align, and group shapes.  Try it yourself!  

The engineering teacher at my school helped me print a few test pieces once my Tinkercad files were completed.  I designed one that is the same size as my original and a smaller one for elementary students.  Both of these designs are now available as open source files on Thingiverse.  Please share them with anyone who might benefit from them!

Open Source STL Files:

Recorder Arm Adult Size

Recorder Arm Child Size